The House GOP plan would add $2.6 trillion to the deficit before being balanced in 2027.
The House vote on the 'budget resolution' for 2018 was months behind schedule - it supposed to be done by April - coming a few days into the start of the new fiscal year, as the GOP tries to jump start action on tax reform.
While Ryan and Republicans hailed the budget vote, Democrats saw things differently, denouncing what they say is a budget plan that will cut spending for Medicaid and Medicare, and allowing for tax cuts that mainly reach the wealthy.
"Eighty percent of it would benefit the top one percent in our country," said House Democratic Leader Nancy Pelosi, who drew some jeers from GOP lawmakers in a speech on the floor of the House, as she jabbed at the Republican budget details.
"And guess what happens to the middle class? $470 billion in tax increases," Pelosi said, previewing the arguments to come over the details of the Republican tax reform package, which is not expected to draw much - if any - support from Democrats.
Democrats also savaged plans for entitlement reforms, arguing the "GOP budget would strip billions from Medicare, Medicaid, college aid, and programs that help our people," said Rep. Jamie Raskin (D-MD).
The House vote came as the Senate Budget Committee voted 12-11 to approve a slightly different GOP version of the budget outline for 2018; a full Senate vote is expected later this month. The two versions - which have some significant differences - will then have to merged in House-Senate negotiations.