Those are just a couple of the commonly undervalued rules that can lead to inaccurate blood pressure readings.
And small inaccuracies in blood pressure measurement can have major consequences.
"It has been predicted that the consequences of an untreated 5 mm Hg of excessive systolic blood pressure would be a 25 percent increase over current levels of fatal strokes and fatal myocardial infarctions for these individuals," Dr. Joel Handler of Kaiser Permanente wrote in a 2009 study about the importance of an accurate blood pressure measurement.
Overestimating blood pressure readings can also lead to inappropriate treatment, exposing patients to “adverse drug effects, the psychological effects of misdiagnosis, and unnecessary cost,” Handler wrote.
To address the issue of inaccurate readings, Whelton and his colleagues rolled out a checklist for medical professionals to follow when taking a patient’s blood pressure.
Here are the do’s and don’ts from a patient’s persepctive, Welton told NPR:
Before the test:
Do empty your bladder before having your blood pressure taken.
Don't exercise, smoke or consume caffeine within 30 minutes of your test
During the test:
Do sit in a chair with your feet flat on the ground, your legs uncrossed with your back supported and without talking, for at least five minutes before your test.
Do roll up your sleeves so the blood pressure cuff rests on your skin and not your clothing.
Don't have your blood pressure taken while sitting or lying on the exam table.
Don't let your arm dangle or rest in your lap during the blood pressure reading.
After the test:
If your blood pressure seems high, do get a reading in both arms.
The next time you come in, do get a reading in the arm that showed the higher blood pressure.