Violations are punishable by fines. If committed by non-residents, they can lead to their expulsion from Russia. The fines range from 100,000 to 2 million rubles ($1,660-$33,000). For some violations, foreigners could face 15 days’ detention prior to expulsion.
The bill does not make violations a criminal offense. Russian law stipulates that the criminal code can be amended only through an independent bill. Some lawmakers have suggested they favor such a measure.
Russia explicitly outlawed same-sex marriages in 2020 by adopting amendments to the country's Constitution that, among other things, stipulated that the “institution of marriage is a union between a man and a woman.”