The trailer, which shows mostly silent visuals, shows the former first lady washing her husband's blood off of her, staring tearfully out of a car window, mourning at Kennedy's funeral and leading a television crew around the White House. Portman is seen in some of Jackie O's iconic outfits.
"People like to believe in fairy tales. Don't let it be forgot that for one brief, shining moment, there was Camelot," Portman says in one of the only lines of the trailer, quoting a song from the musical. "There won't be another Camelot."
Richard Burton's Broadway recording of the "Camelot" theme plays in the background of the trailer.
In an interview with Life magazine in the days after her husband's death, Onassis said one of JFK's favorite songs came from the 1960 musical "Camelot," which was associated with his presidency.
The film also follows Onassis' life after the White House, including a look into her marriage to her second husband, Aristotle Onassis, and her struggle with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the illness that ultimately killed her in 1994 at the age of 64.
"She's so well-known in terms of what she looks like and what she sounds like and how she moves, so to get that is definitely daunting," Portman told Entertainment Weekly about the role. "(We see) the toughness of who she was, dealing with what she had to go through while keeping herself together for the sake of the country and her family, and also the vulnerability and the intelligence of how she really crafted (her husband's) legacy."
Directed by Pablo Larraín, the film also features Caspar Phillipson as President Kennedy, Peter Sarsgaard as Robert Kennedy and Greta Gerwig as White House social secretary Nancy Tuckerman.
"Jackie," which premiered at the Venice Film Festival in September, is set to hit theaters Dec. 2.
Some have said that the film might earn Portman, 35, her second Oscar.